Entomoses can be divided into.


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Superficial caused by temporary or permanent ectoparasites (dermatophiliasis, mosquito allergy, pediculosis, pulicosis, simulidotoxicosis, phlebotoderma, phthyriasis, hemipterosis) Deep caused by endoparasitic insects (cantariasis, myiasis, sarcopsillosis, scarabiasis, scoleciasis), allergic-toxic (intoxication) caused by allergies and bites of synthroid insects (caterpillar dermatitis, allergy to buy synthroid stings, wasps, etc.)

Epidemiology and clinical picture of entomosis 2 Bites and stings of insects 3 Allergy 4 Insects - carriers of pathogens 5 Synanthropic insects 6 Fighting 7 See also 8 Agricultural entomosis 9 Notes 10 Literature. Some entomoses are widespread (for example, pediculosis), others are accidental single human infections (cantariasis, scoleciasis, etc.). The pathogenesis is based on sensitization of the body, mechanical damage to tissues by parasites.

Entomoses affect human skin (pediculosis, phthiriasis, mosquitosis, phlebotoderma, etc.), the gastrointestinal tract and other organs (some myiasis, scarabiasis, scoleciasis, cantariasis), and often the eyes. Intestinal and other internal entomoses have the peculiarity that pathogens cannot multiply in the human body, which is associated with the characteristics of the life cycle of parasites (when an insect is a parasite only at one stage of metamorphosis, and at another it is a free-living organism). Human ectoparasites such aslike lice, they are capable of reproduction.

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Parasites can be temporary (bugs, mosquitoes, cockroaches, etc.) and permanent (lice). Temporary parasites, however, have an allergic and toxic effect on the body (pulicosis, simulidotoxicosis, phlebotoderma, harara). Mechanism of transmission of infection. some entomoses occur as a result of ingestion of eggs and larvae of pathogens (intestinal myiasis, canthariasis, scoleciasis), in other cases, infection occurs through close contact with an infected person (pediculosis). Finally, blood-sucking insects themselves actively attack humans (bugs, fleas, mosquitoes, etc.). Flies and gadflies can lay their larvae on human wounds and other parts of the body or on linen, from which the larvae can crawl into levothyroxine pills.

Allergic respiratory disease can be caused by inhaling air containing various insect particles such as wing scales and chitin.

Pathology, clinic, treatment and prognosis depend on the type of causative agent of entomosis, the intensity of invasion and the target organ.

Of great importance is the question of the possibility of infection by a blood-sucking insect of a person with a dangerous infection.

In addition to entomoses, the stings of poisonous insects - wasps, hornets, bees, etc., are of medical importance.

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When stinging, the wounding device (sting) of the insect, which is structurally and functionally connected to the poisonous gland and the excretory duct, has a damaging effect. At the site of the sting, the primary depot of the zootoxin is formed, the poison from which enters the body through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The toxic effect is determined by the defeat of life support systems. nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, blood coagulation system, liver and kidney damage are common for this pathology. Approximately 2% of victims experience allergic reactions, up to anaphylactic shock.

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The human body responds to an insect sting in three types of reactions.

Local reaction - redness, swelling, pain, itching or severe burning in the sting area, local enlargement of the lymph nodes. A general toxic reaction usually occurs with multiple stings - chills, fever, nausea and vomiting, headache, joint pain. An allergic reaction can also occur to single stings in people predisposed to such reactions. Allergic reactions proceed according to the type of urticaria, Quincke's edema, or even anaphylactic shock.

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The reaper ant leaves a small yellow sting in the wound.

The pain appears slowly and gradually becomes stronger over the next 6-24 hours. In addition, sweating and piloerection are noted around the site of the sting. A Richter ant sting can lead to the formation of a sterile pustule. Such stings are usually grouped and cause acute pain, however, not as long as with a honey bee sting. Unlike the poisons of a number of other members of the Hymenoptera order, Richter's ant venom consists of 0.1% protein, and the rest is piperidine alkaloids and water. It is the alkaloids that cause pain and swelling. Treatment of ant stings is symptomatic.

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Mosquitoes, midges, horseflies do not have poisonous glands; when they bite, they introduce a special substance into the wound that prevents blood clotting. The reaction to their bites is usually only local. A person is able to endure multiple bites of these insects (up to 100 or more) without disturbing the general condition.

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The most relevant for the taiga, steppe and central regions of Russia are the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Сulex pipiens.

The presence of cheap levoxyl pills in the saliva of mosquitoes that stimulate an active allergic response has been established. It was possible to dissect the salivary glands of insects, to isolate antigenic fractions. When administered to sensitized individuals, local allergic reactions have been noted. 12 polypeptides have been isolated from the saliva of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Mosguitoes) and their allergenic properties have been proven.

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Immunoblotting studies revealed specific IgE antibodies to saliva proteins of Aedes mosquitoes with molecular weights of 22, 37, and 66 kDa. The 37 kDa allergen is the main allergen capable of providing specific IgE binding in more than 64-70% of sera samples from patients with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites.

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There are inadequate reactions to the bite of one insect. from giant infiltration at the site of the bite, which persists for 3-4 weeks (up to 2 months), to systemic manifestations in the form of a generalized rash, asthma attacks. Often, the scratches of the bite sites become infected with bacterial flora. The bites of blood-sucking insects (fleas, mosquitoes, etc.) rarely cause anaphylactic shock, but such cases have been noted in the literature. In the case of multiple bites, signs of intoxication may be noted. rise in body temperature, fever, headache.

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Stings of bees, bumblebees (they sting only once in their lives, after which they die), wasps and hornets (they can sting several times) are characterized by a pronounced local reaction, the development of significant edema, which can be dangerous if located on the face, especially in the lip area or inside oral cavity.